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Wintari Ningsih
Baskoro Adi Prayitno
Slamet Santosa


The article is a literature review that discusses the characteristics of ecosystems as learning material. Ecosystems are broad general knowledge regarding living systems, so they need to be studied by students. The purpose of the literature review in this article is to analyze the characteristics of ecosystem materials, ways of empowering ecosystem materials, and learning media that can be used to meet the characteristics of ecosystem materials. The method used is a systematic literature review related to the characteristics of ecosystem material. The literature studied from 2012 to 2023 was selected based on several criteria. The literature obtained based on the criteria amounted to 100 articles. After analysis based on abstracts, keywords, methods, discussions, and finally, 19 articles were selected that could be used as study material. The results of the literature review show that ecosystem material has several characteristics. That can be met with an active learning approach with a problem-based learning model and requires learning media innovations that can accommodate conceptual learning through the presentation of material in the form of visual as well as audio-visual and contextual exploration of the surrounding environment.

Keywords: ecosystem, biology, active learning, problem-based learning

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